Association for the History Studies and Military Architecture
The A.S.S.A.M. association for the history studies and military architecture
proposes the study of the history
and the military architecture of the modern, century XVIII, XIX, XX,
XXI, organizing also extensions, conferences, visits to situated historians,
participating to conferences also at European level. From some years,
after to have obtained in confidence from public domain Fort Bramafam
in Bardonecchia (Turin), has started a plan of restoration and fine
same functional recovery of on historical-museum of concert with the
effective contribution of some private and public agencies
Fort Bramafam History:
1874-1889 Project and costruction of Fort Bramafam
In 1870, after the proclamation of the Italian Kingdom in 1861, when
started the project to the construction of many Fortresses at the new
borderline there was a strategical problem for the Italian Military
General Staff: the construction of the Fréjus Tunnel between Bardonecchia
(I) and Modane (F).
They thought that through it Italian Kingdom could be attacked by the
The only area that could be fortified to defend the Italian entrance
of the railway-tunnel was the Bramafam hill's, in front of it.
The construction of the earlier defence in the area of the Bramafam
began in 1874, with a field battery, almost at the same time of the
inauguration of the Fréjus Tunnel.
The goal was to give some kind of armed protection at the end of the
tunnel, in Bardonecchia, in order to stop any kind of invasion of the
French troops in case of the inside battery and the destruction mine
system of the tunnel did not work.
The present Fort Bramafam was projected in 1882 and the works was completed
in 1889. Some different parts of this huge fortified complex that can
still be easily identified today: in the drill-ground show up the main
building with troops barracks, officers barracks, a blockhouse and the
artillery storehouse, at the western side of the hill, the fort, with
the armament under the armoured towers.
1892 -1940 From the Triple Alliance with Germany to the Battle of the Alps in June 1940 against french troops.
In 1892 a report of the Deuxiéme Bureau, the French spy service, said
that the fortress was to be considered complete and soon would also
be equipped with new artillery.
A King Italian Army report said that Fort Bramafam in 1898 had two of
the new Gruson armoured towers for 120/21 pieces ( 6 inch), four fast-shot
guns 57mm (2,3 inch) on disappearing towers, six 87B ( B = Bronze) guns
( 3,4 inch) in three sections of a field battery, two pieces of 149G
( G = cast iron) ( 7 inch) on the western front and, in the artillery
storehouses, there were also one mortar-battery, four pieces, to be
used when, where needed.
The garrison of the fort, 250 soldiers, was assured by troops of 6th
Artillery Regiment of Fortress and Turin command until 1937 when the
two Gruson armoured towers for 120/21 pieces and a battery of eight
Skoda howitzer 100/17 mod. 14 were use to create the 516th Battery G.a.F.
still in use during World War II, and the garrison was assured by the
Guardia alla Frontiera, the Fortress Guard of the Border until the 8th
September 1943, day of the Italian armistice.
During the World War I as in all the North-west fortress in the occidental
Alps the armament of Fort Bramafam was transferred on the oriental border
and his barracks was used to fit the numerous Austrian prisoners that
worked in Bardonecchia for the maintenance of the military roads and
the Fréjus Tunnel.
Around 1930, when the political situation with France began to deteriorate,
the Italian Military General Staff started to fortify all the border-valley
with thousand of "Opere in caverna" that created the Vallo Alpino and some reinforcement works had to be done to develop the external
defences of the fortress.
The most important one in this area, "Centro 14", was armed with six
machine-guns in iron pill-boxes and one armoured-observation post. It
was completed in 1939, the others Centri were armed also with anti tank
gun or 75/27 mod 06 gun, (3 inch) in battery of 4 or 6 pieces.
In 1938 as for all the rest of the Italian border land also Bardonecchia
and Fort Bramafam were assigned to a sector of the Guardia alla Frontiera
(G.a.F.): the "VIII Sector G.a.F. Bardonecchia", Guard of
1940-1945 The second worl war an the liberation
During the "Battaglia della Alpi" (Battle of the Alps) on
June 1940 against French troops of the S.F.A.M. Fort Bramafam did not
directly intervene. After the armistice in September 1943 the Fort Bramafam
and the other blockhouse was occupied by German troops that disseminated
with mines all the area below the fort. These mines caused the death
of a German soldier, three civilian and an Italian artificer.
On April 19th, 1945, just for precaution, the command of the 100th Regiment
"Gebirgsjäger" and the one of the II° battalion of the same regiment,
coming from Bardonecchia and Mélézet, moved into the Fort.
The command of the regiment and last Germans troops left the Fort at
dawn April 27th, 1945, moving to Germany.
Then, in 1994, are come us, the A.S.S.A.M. Association, profitless,
for restore our memory.
1995 - 2009: Museum Fort Bramafam!!