Associazione per gli Studi di Storia e Architettura Militare A.S.S.A.M.

english flagAssociation for the History Studies and Military Architecture

The A.S.S.A.M. association for the history studies and military architecture proposes the study of the history and the military architecture of the modern, century XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI, organizing also extensions, conferences, visits to situated historians, participating to conferences also at European level. From some years, after to have obtained in confidence from public domain Fort Bramafam in Bardonecchia (Turin), has started a plan of restoration and fine same functional recovery of on historical-museum of concert with the effective contribution of some private and public agencies

Fort Bramafam History:

1874-1889 Project and costruction of Fort Bramafam
In 1870, after the proclamation of the Italian Kingdom in 1861, when started the project to the construction of many Fortresses at the new borderline there was a strategical problem for the Italian Military General Staff: the construction of the Fréjus Tunnel between Bardonecchia (I) and Modane (F).
They thought that through it Italian Kingdom could be attacked by the French troops.
The only area that could be fortified to defend the Italian entrance of the railway-tunnel was the Bramafam hill's, in front of it.
The construction of the earlier defence in the area of the Bramafam began in 1874, with a field battery, almost at the same time of the inauguration of the Fréjus Tunnel.
The goal was to give some kind of armed protection at the end of the tunnel, in Bardonecchia, in order to stop any kind of invasion of the French troops in case of the inside battery and the destruction mine system of the tunnel did not work.
The present Fort Bramafam was projected in 1882 and the works was completed in 1889. Some different parts of this huge fortified complex that can still be easily identified today: in the drill-ground show up the main building with troops barracks, officers barracks, a blockhouse and the artillery storehouse, at the western side of the hill, the fort, with the armament under the armoured towers.

1892 -1940 From the Triple Alliance with Germany to the Battle of the Alps in June 1940 against french troops.
In 1892 a report of the Deuxiéme Bureau, the French spy service, said that the fortress was to be considered complete and soon would also be equipped with new artillery.
A King Italian Army report said that Fort Bramafam in 1898 had two of the new Gruson armoured towers for 120/21 pieces ( 6 inch), four fast-shot guns 57mm (2,3 inch) on disappearing towers, six 87B ( B = Bronze) guns ( 3,4 inch) in three sections of a field battery, two pieces of 149G ( G = cast iron) ( 7 inch) on the western front and, in the artillery storehouses, there were also one mortar-battery, four pieces, to be used when, where needed.
The garrison of the fort, 250 soldiers, was assured by troops of 6th Artillery Regiment of Fortress and Turin command until 1937 when the two Gruson armoured towers for 120/21 pieces and a battery of eight Skoda howitzer 100/17 mod. 14 were use to create the 516th Battery G.a.F. still in use during World War II, and the garrison was assured by the Guardia alla Frontiera, the Fortress Guard of the Border until the 8th September 1943, day of the Italian armistice.
During the World War I as in all the North-west fortress in the occidental Alps the armament of Fort Bramafam was transferred on the oriental border and his barracks was used to fit the numerous Austrian prisoners that worked in Bardonecchia for the maintenance of the military roads and the Fréjus Tunnel.
Around 1930, when the political situation with France began to deteriorate, the Italian Military General Staff started to fortify all the border-valley with thousand of "Opere in caverna" that created the Vallo Alpino and some reinforcement works had to be done to develop the external defences of the fortress.
The most important one in this area, "Centro 14", was armed with six machine-guns in iron pill-boxes and one armoured-observation post. It was completed in 1939, the others Centri were armed also with anti tank gun or 75/27 mod 06 gun, (3 inch) in battery of 4 or 6 pieces.
In 1938 as for all the rest of the Italian border land also Bardonecchia and Fort Bramafam were assigned to a sector of the Guardia alla Frontiera (G.a.F.): the "VIII Sector G.a.F. Bardonecchia", Guard of the Border.

1940-1945 The second worl war an the liberation
During the "Battaglia della Alpi" (Battle of the Alps) on June 1940 against French troops of the S.F.A.M. Fort Bramafam did not directly intervene. After the armistice in September 1943 the Fort Bramafam and the other blockhouse was occupied by German troops that disseminated with mines all the area below the fort. These mines caused the death of a German soldier, three civilian and an Italian artificer.
On April 19th, 1945, just for precaution, the command of the 100th Regiment "Gebirgsjäger" and the one of the II° battalion of the same regiment, coming from Bardonecchia and Mélézet, moved into the Fort.
The command of the regiment and last Germans troops left the Fort at dawn April 27th, 1945, moving to Germany.
Then, in 1994, are come us, the A.S.S.A.M. Association, profitless, for restore our memory.

1995 - 2009: Museum Fort Bramafam!!